Aplikasi Teori Double Movement Fazlur Rahman Terhadap Doktrin Kewarisan Islam Klasik

Labib Muttaqin

Abstract


Perbedaan metode tafsir mengakibatkan perbedaan produk hukum. Salah satu dari berbagai banyak isu yang kerap kali menjadi tema perdebatan adalah kewarisan Islam. Dalam hal waris, mayoritas ulama klasik memandang bahwa ketentuannya bersifat tetap (qat’i) dan tidak boleh ada perubahan atas dirinya. Berbeda dengan pendapat yang dilontarkan kalangan progressif bahwa perlu adanya redefinisi terhadap istilah qat’i dengan melihat sejarah atas eksistensinya. Tawaran segar muncul dari Fazlur Rahman, intelektual muslim asal Pakistan yang berpikiran maju. Dalam memahami dan menafsiri teks al-Qur’an ia memperkenalkan teori gerak-ganda, yaitu teori yang menghendaki adanya pemahaman terhadap makna al-Qur’an dalam konteks kesejarahannya (sosio-historikal) sehingga tidak memunculkan istilah subyektifitas tafsir, dengan harapan teks dan makna yang ada dalam al-Qur’an tidak dipahami secara stagnan tetapi dinamis dengan tujuan Islam tetap bisa menjawab isu-isu kontemporer yang berkembang pada saat ini dan tetap menjadi agama yang rahmatan lil ‘alamin dan likulli zaman wa makan.

 

Kata kunci: gerak-ganda, Fazlur Rahman, waris, metode tafsir, fiqh kontemporer

 

The difference in a method of exegesis could cause the difference in legal interpretation. One of many issues that often becomes a debate is inheritance in Islamic law. The majority of classical ulama beheld that the Qur'anic stipulations on inheritance law are decisive (qat'i), and therefore they should not be changed. In contrast, the view of progressive Muslims believes that it needs redefinition to the term of qat'i (decisive) to discern historical aspects of scripture. A fresh offer of thought came from Fazlur Rahman, a progressive Muslim intellectual from Pakistan. To understand and interpret Qur'anic texts, he introduced a theory of double-movement, a theory that demands an understanding of Qur'anic meanings from socio-historical contexts in order to avoid subjectivity of interpretation, and to expect that Qur'anic texts and their meanings could not be understood stagnantly. Instead, Qur'anic texts should be interpreted dynamically in order that Islam could keep responding contemporary issues that develop nowadays, and that Islam still become a universal religion both in term of time and place.

 

Keywords: double movement, Fazlur Rahman, inheritence, interpretation method, contemporary fiqh


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